i'm just going to leave this here for future reference:

View attachment 387303
It is the 'key' to unlocking so much of functional harmony.

Study it, figure out the various patterns it contains...

and you will travel far along the path of musical righteousness.

First step:

Look at the circle of 5ths... starting from the key of C at the top we move clockwise,

upwards by the interval of a perfect 5th each time, and each key adds one more accidental,

which would be a sharp (

**#**)...

C (no sharps), then G (one sharp, which occurs on the 7th scale degree), so

G A B C D E

**F# **and then back to G, the

** octave**.

The D Major scale would be the next in line, and we retain the

**F#** from the previous key,

and add one more to the 7th scale degree of our new key:

D E

**F#**G A B

**C# **D.

In A major we would carry over both sharps from the previous key, and add one more on the 7th degree, so we now have:

A B

**C#** D E

**F#** **G#** A

The

**Major scale** **pattern **is always the same, with

** half steps occurring between steps 3 and 4 and between 7 and** **8**.

If we look at the diagram again, and move counterclockwise, we are still

*ascending*
(this is the tricky part visually and conceptually), but by intervals of

**4ths** now,

and each click in that counterclockwise direction adds one flat (

**b**).

C (no flats, the only 'natural' major key), then F (one flat):

F G A

**Bb** C D E F.

For the next key, we keep the Bb (obviously, since it's the root or 'tonic' of our new key, LOL),

and add one more flat to arrive at:

**Bb **C D

**Eb** F G A

**Bb**
The next counterclockwise key is Eb Major, and guess what we're going to do?

That's right, we'll carry over our previous flats, and add another one:

Eb F G

** Ab Bb** C D

**Eb**
Next key: Ab Major:

**Ab Bb** C

**Db** **Eb **F G

**Ab**
**Are you starting to see the pattern?**
Each new clockwise key moves to the

**5th**, keeps any previous sharps and

** adds a sharp to the new key's 7th scale degree.**
Each new counterclockwise key moves to the

**4th,** keeps any previous flats, and

**adds a flat to the new 4th scale degree.**
At the bottom of the circle is F#, which is also enharmonic Gb (in equal temperament, of course, LOL again).

"Ahh, but if I'm counting backwards, aren't I going down 5 steps, not 4?", i hear you saying.

Yes, in fact you are... welcome to the world of

**inversions**.
A lot of basic music theory is actually just simple math.

Any given interval plus its inversion gives a sum of 9.

So up 5 steps will give you the same pitch name as down 4.

Conversely, up 4 steps will give you the same pitch name as down 5.

And up 6 will give you the same pitch name as down 3.

Try it:

**C D E F G A B C...**
move up 6 steps starting from C, and you will arrive at A.

Count back 3 steps from C, and you get back to... wait for it... A again.

Add 6 + 3, and the sum is... 9.

9 is our magic number when it comes to inversions.

Stay tuned... next week we'll enter the 'Inner Circle'...

but we've already received the 'key' to the door.

This discussion will now continue here:

https://www.strat-talk.com/threads/emcs-functional-harmony-thread.536064/Click to expand...